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中國古代國家的起源與王權的形成

第五屆郭沫若中國歷史學獎 提名獎;“第十屆(2019年)中國社會科學院優秀科研成果獎”二等獎

ISBN:978-7-5161-2158-0

出版日期:2019-08

頁數:559

字數:598.0千字

點擊量:6738次

引用量:4次

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基金信息: 國家哲學社會科學成果文庫 展開
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李學勤王震中博士是中國社會科學院歷史研究所的研究員,專門研究中國古代歷史文化已有多年。他特別集中于文明起源問題的探索,做出了令人矚目的成績,早在1994年就出版了《中國文明起源的比較研究》一書,已為學術界所熟悉,以其獨到的見解,引起了不少反響?!吨袊糯鷩业钠鹪磁c王權的形成》是他近期又一力作,得到國家社科基金的支持,也是中國社會科學院的重點項目,從內容性質來說,可以視為《中國文明起源的比較研究》的延續和發展?!吨袊糯鷩业钠鹪磁c王權的形成》是一部約60萬字的大書,今年初我看了其中一部分章節,已深感其論說專業而有創新性。及至春節過后,震中博士寄示全稿,得以了解這部書的整體構思,更對其觀點的新穎特異之處有更進一步的認識。承他不棄,再三要我寫一篇小序,由于付印在即,時間緊迫,只能隨便談一些繹讀之余的感想,能否有當便在所不計了。首先我想說,震中博士這部書論述的主題,即中國國家的起源問題,乃是探索中國文明起源這個重大學術課題的核心環節,具有非常重要的意義。大家都知道,中國有五千多年的文明史,然而輝煌燦爛的中國文明是在什么時間,什么地方,經歷了什么樣的歷程產生形成的?回答這個疑問,關鍵要看國家。有了國家,才是進入了文明時代,這一點凡讀過恩格斯《家庭、私有制和國家的起源》的人都會記得??脊艑W家夏鼐先生在《中國文明的起源》里便說,“文明”是“指一個社會已經由氏族制度解體而進入有了國家組織的階級社會的階段”。許多學術界前輩曾探討中國古代國家的起源問題。郭沫若先生在1929年撰著了《中國古代社會研究》,該書于1930年印行,其“自序”表明他認為這本書“可以說就是恩格斯的《家庭、私有制和國家的起源》的續篇。研究的方法便是以他為向導,而于他所知道了的美洲的印第安人、歐洲的古代希臘、羅馬之外,提供出來了他未曾提及一字的中國的古代?!惫粝壬菤v史研究所首任所長,繼他為第二任所長的侯外廬先生,在1943年出版過《中國古典社會史論》(后改名為《中國古代社會史論》),討論了中國國家的形成途徑及其早期形態的演變。再有長期擔任歷史所領導工作的尹達先生,1943年在《中國原始社會》書中同樣論說了氏族社會的崩潰和國家的初期形態。一直到1983年,他為《史前研究》創刊寫題為《衷心的愿望》的代序,仍然涉及這方面的問題,而這已是他最后的學術文章了。從這些我們不難看到,歷史研究所有重視古代文明和國家起源研究的傳統,王震中博士正是繼承了這個傳統,做出了自己的創新。王震中博士的這部《中國古代國家的起源與王權的形成》,采取了多學科交叉結合的研究方法,從大量考古學發現材料的整理分析開始,對傳世典籍內的種種古史傳說試做整合解釋,提出了一系列富于新意的理論觀點,構建了一個全新的體系。許多人知道,自1925年王國維先生倡導古史研究要實行古書記載與地下材料彼此印證的“二重證據法”以來,多數研究古代的學者都努力以歷史學與考古學相互配合,相互補充,那種對古史傳說一律抹殺,以為全不可信的看法,已被認為是不正確的。尹達先生的《中國原始社會》說得好:“古代的傳說并不是毫無史實憑借的讕言,并不是荒唐無稽的神話,其中一定會影射著不少的具體事實,一定會有其不可缺少的史實作為素地。這是我們對于中國古代傳說的一個總的估計?!蓖跽鹬胁┦繒袑儆谶@方面的不少見解,都足以引發大家深思。我還想建議,這部《中國古代國家的起源與王權的形成》的讀者,在打開書以后,不妨先讀一下全書的“結語”。作者在“結語”開頭講道:“國家與文明起源的研究,既是一個考古學實踐問題,亦是一個理論問題,而且還需二者緊密地結合?!蔽矣X得這說得很對,古代國家與文明的起源形成,歸根到底是一個理論問題。對這樣重大課題的研究,如果沒有提高到理論的高度,就不能說有真正的成果。王震中博士的理論創新,在全書的“結語”中又有進一步的提煉和升華,在其夾敘夾議中展開了中國古代國家起源及其發展的歷史畫卷。王震中博士在給我的一封信里,敘說了他寫這部書時對“理論創新與實證研究相結合”的追求。我認為他的這部書做到了這一點。這部力作是對他近年來提出的“文明和國家起源路徑的聚落三形態演進”說,進入國家社會之后所經過的“邦國-王國-帝國”說,以及“夏商周三代為復合制國家結構”說這些學術體系的系統展示和進一步深化、完善。在書中,他還對近年學術界流行的酋邦理論和社會分層理論等作了分析和批評,提出應“以聚落形態和社會形態為主,去整合酋邦理論和社會分層理論”。王震中博士的這些理論觀點,是貫徹在他全書中的,希望讀者能予注意。2013年2月28日

Dr. Li Xueqin and Wang Zhenzhong are researchers at the Institute of History of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, specializing in ancient Chinese history and culture for many years. As early as 1994, he published the book "A Comparative Study of the Origin of Chinese Civilization", which has been familiar to the academic community and has aroused many repercussions with his unique insights. "The Origin of the Ancient Chinese State and the Formation of Royal Power" is another of his recent masterpieces, supported by the National Social Science Fund, and is also a key project of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, which can be regarded as the continuation and development of "A Comparative Study of the Origin of Chinese Civilization" in terms of content nature. "The Origin of the Ancient Chinese State and the Formation of Royal Power" is a large book of about 600,000 words, and I read some of its chapters earlier this year, and I felt that its arguments were professional and innovative. After the Spring Festival, Dr. Epicenter sent the full manuscript, which allowed him to understand the overall concept of the book and further understand the novelty and peculiarities of his views. He did not give up, and repeatedly asked me to write a small preface, because the printing was imminent and time was urgent, so I could only casually talk about some thoughts after reading, and whether I could have it or not was at the right time. First of all, I would like to say that the theme discussed in Dr. Epicenter's book, that is, the origin of the Chinese state, is the core link of exploring the origin of Chinese civilization, which is of great significance. Everyone knows that China has a history of more than 5,000 years of civilization, but at what time, where and what kind of process did the splendid Chinese civilization come into being? The key to answering this question depends on the country. With the state, it is the era of civilization, which anyone who has read Engels' "The Family, Private Property and the Origin of the State" will remember. Archaeologist Mr. Xia Nai said in "The Origin of Chinese Civilization" that "civilization" refers to the stage in which a society has disintegrated from the clan system and entered a class society with state organization." Many academic predecessors have explored the origin of the ancient Chinese state. Guo Moruo's 1929 book A Study of Ancient Chinese Society, published in 1930, indicates that he considered the book "a sequel to Engels' The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State." The method of research was to use him as a guide, and in addition to what he knew, the Indians of the Americas, the ancient Greece and Rome of Europe, and provided the ancient China that he did not mention. Mr. Guo Moruo, the first director of the Institute of History, succeeded him as the second director, Mr. Hou Wailu, published Classical Chinese Social History (later renamed Ancient Chinese Social History) in 1943, which discussed the way the Chinese state was formed and the evolution of its early form. Then there is Mr. Yin Da, who has been a historical leader for a long time, and in 1943 he also discussed the collapse of clan society and the initial form of the state in his book "Chinese Primitive Society". Until 1983, when he wrote the preface to the inaugural journal of Prehistoric Studies entitled "Heartfelt Wishes", this is still the subject of this issue, and this is his last scholarly article. From these it is not difficult to see that historical research attaches importance to the tradition of ancient civilizations and the study of the origin of countries, Dr. Wang Zhenzhong has inherited this tradition and made his own innovations. Dr. Wang Zhenzhong's "The Origin of the Ancient Chinese State and the Formation of Royal Power" adopts a multidisciplinary research method, starting from the collation and analysis of a large number of archaeological discovery materials, trying to integrate and explain various ancient history and legends in the handed down texts, and putting forward a series of innovative theoretical views to build a new system. Many people know that since Mr. Wang Guowei advocated the implementation of the "double evidence method" in the study of ancient history in 1925, in which ancient book records and underground materials corroborate each other, most scholars who study ancient times have tried to cooperate and complement each other with history and archaeology. Mr. Yin Da's "Primitive Society in China" put it well: "Ancient legends are not rumors without historical facts, they are not absurd myths, they must insinuate many specific facts, and there must be indispensable historical facts as a prime." This is our general estimate of ancient Chinese legends. "Many of the insights in Dr. Wang Zhenzhong's book belong to this regard, which are enough to cause everyone to think deeply. I would also like to suggest that readers of this "The Origin of the Ancient Chinese State and the Formation of Royal Power" may wish to read the "epilogue" of the whole book after opening the book. The author begins his "Epilogue" by saying: "The study of the origin of the state and civilization is both a practical and a theoretical problem in archaeology, and it needs to be closely integrated. "I think this is very correct, the origin and formation of ancient countries and civilizations is, in the final analysis, a theoretical issue. If the research on such a major topic is not raised to the level of theory, it cannot be said that there will be real results. Dr. Wang Zhenzhong's theoretical innovation is further refined and sublimated in the "conclusion" of the book, and the historical picture of the origin and development of ancient Chinese countries is unfolded in his narrative and discussion. In a letter to me, Dr. Wang Zhenzhong described his pursuit of "combining theoretical innovation and empirical research" when he wrote this book. I think his book does that. This masterpiece is a systematic display, further deepening and improvement of the academic systems of "the three-form evolution of the settlement of the origin path of civilization and the state" proposed by him in recent years, the "state-kingdom-empire" theory that passed through after entering the national society, and the theory that "Xia Shang was a composite state structure". In the book, he also analyzes and criticizes the chiefdom theory and social stratification theory popular in academia in recent years, and proposes that "settlement form and social form should be the mainstay, and the chiefdom theory and social stratification theory should be integrated". These theoretical views of Dr. Wang Zhenzhong are implemented throughout his book, and I hope readers will pay attention to them. February 28, 2013(AI翻譯)

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
王震中.中國古代國家的起源與王權的形成[M].北京:中國社會科學出版社,2019
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MLA 格式引文
王震中.中國古代國家的起源與王權的形成.北京,中國社會科學出版社:2019E-book.
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APA 格式引文
王震中(2019).中國古代國家的起源與王權的形成.北京:中國社會科學出版社
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