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蒙古語喀喇沁土語社會語言學研究

A Sociolinguistic Study on Mongolian Haraqin Vatois

ISBN:978-7-5161-5506-6

出版日期:2015-04

頁數:584

字數:584.0千字

叢書名:《國家哲學社會科學成果文庫》

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引用量:2次

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本著共分九章。第一章“緒言”,包括課題研究的目的、研究現狀及意義、課題的設計思路和研究內容、研究方法,以及主要觀點和創新點等內容。

第二章“喀喇沁蒙古族源流及氏族構成”,從不同角度論證“喀喇沁”一詞源于職業名稱——北魏時期的宮廷宿衛“曷剌真”;“喀喇沁”作為部落和職業名稱,主要來自元代的欽察軍及哈剌赤戶;“喀喇沁”作為獨立、統一的部落,形成于明代;在清代,“喀喇沁”為蒙古部落名兼行政區域名稱。

第三章為“赤峰市喀喇沁旗蒙古族語言文字使用情況”。社會調查及問卷調查數據顯示:喀喇沁旗蒙古族人口中,使用蒙古語言文字者的比例不到0.6%。1921—1936年出生的70—85歲年齡層次的人屬于從蒙古語向蒙古語和漢語雙語過渡的時代,時值民國時期;1938—1950年出生的55—68歲年齡層次的人屬于雙語并用時代,時間包括抗日戰爭、解放戰爭直到新中國成立;1951—1990年出生的17—55歲年齡層次的人屬于轉用漢語的時代。據推算,再過一代人,即30年左右,喀喇沁旗將不存在實質上使用蒙古族語言文字的人。

第四章為“赤峰市寧城縣喀喇沁蒙古族語言使用情況”。社會調查及問卷調查數據顯示:寧城縣的蒙古語已進入瀕危階段。在瀕危語言(方言)區,家庭是母語激勵源,社會是漢語激勵源,社區人員的實際語言能力,一般情況下,接近兩種語言使用機率的折中值。語言模式轉換的一般過程是,首先是雙語得到發展,純蒙古語的使用受抑制,漢語使用逐步擴大;其次是蒙古語從社會交際領域退出,雙語使用率下降,漢語使用率穩步上升;最后是完全轉用漢語。語言模式轉換的速度,城鎮快于鄉村,子女快于父母,干部快于農民和學生。在瀕危語言(方言)區,學校是母語、母文化保護的重要陣地,合并學校時,應分別對待,謹慎處理。

第五章為“遼寧省喀喇沁左翼蒙古族自治縣蒙古族語言使用情況”。社會調查和問卷調查數據顯示:喀喇沁左翼蒙古族自治縣蒙古族人口中蒙古語使用者占全縣蒙古族總人口的15.9%,真正的使用者不足10%??咦笠砻晒抛遄灾慰h蒙古族語言使用模式,在新中國成立前就從蒙古語單語過渡到蒙漢雙語模式,從新中國成立初至1979年,再從蒙漢雙語過渡到漢語單語模式??咦笠砻晒抛遄灾慰h蒙古語在使用上已出現斷代,成為瀕危土語。

第六章為“喀喇沁部的地理分布及人口移動對民族接觸和語言接觸的影響”?!白匀淮宓孛麛祿臁睌祿@示:移民對喀喇沁地區民族接觸和民族構成模式的形成有重大影響,而民族接觸和民族構成模式是影響語言接觸、語言轉用過程和進度的最重要的社會因素。平泉縣移民開始早、規模大,蒙古族村落成為少數孤島,在邊緣孤島中,蒙古語以蒙古族聚居的自然村為依托,不同程度地得以保存和傳承??咂煲泼耖_始早,但受土地所有權限制,形成蒙漢雜居模式,程度逐漸加深,兼用、轉用彼此的語言成為自然選擇,漢族人口逐漸占優勢,漢語替代蒙古語的趨勢開始形成。寧城縣的移民開始早,由于有清廷的支持和專門開發機構,移民可以大規模地、獨立地建村并開發利用當地的土地和山林,居住模式是分離式的,蒙漢民族各保一方,雜居程度較低,蒙古族聚居村落較好地保存了蒙古語??咦笠砻晒抛遄灾慰h移民及其居住模式深受時局影響,在康熙之前蒙漢自然雜居,乾隆后漢族移民占優勢,民國及新中國成立后出現一個調整過程,雜居程度加深,但不及喀喇沁旗。在蒙古族聚居的自然村中,蒙古語保留程度比喀喇沁旗好,但不如寧城縣。

“自然村地名數據庫”數據還顯示,喀喇沁地區蒙古語自然村地名按詞義分類,可包括自然地理式、氏族人名式、職業分工式、聚落計戶式四種類型。自然地理式村名顯示喀喇沁人以山地聚落為主;氏族人名式村名顯示喀喇沁部由眾多氏族融合而成;職業分工式村名顯示喀喇沁地區曾經有過發達的畜牧業和狩獵、山林經營傳統,農業及其他職業也逐步得到發展;聚落計戶式村名顯示,喀喇沁地區初期的蒙古村落以3、5、7、8戶為主,規模很小。同名自然村名前加特定限定詞,是自然村的橫向擴展形式,以駐地核心村命名自然村上一級行政單位,是農村管理網絡的縱向擴展形式??叩貐^蒙古語地名的漢化有音譯、音譯加意譯、意譯加音譯、意譯、兩名并行、改名等不同過程。地名演化是語言演變的一種。

第七章“喀喇沁地區蒙古族雙語教育研究”認為,語言文字的使用深受國家制度的約束。特定語言在最大范圍內的通行功能和國家政治權力相結合,便產生語言權威,體現在學校語言的選擇及其安排順序、國家對語言文字的規范上。語言文字教育與國家的教育制度和政策運行機制有密切關系。此外,語言教育同人口比例、分布及其變動,同居民對語言教育的經濟支撐能力,以及受教育者對社會發展的期望值等,都有不可分割的密切聯系。

第八章為“喀喇沁地區異族通婚對語言使用模式演變的影響”。異族通婚對語言模式的演變有重要影響,但不是決定的因素。異族通婚的影響,主要表現為漢族母親將漢語帶進家庭,并影響子女家庭語言模式。異族通婚家庭語言模式演變的決定因素是社會語言環境,其中工作語言和鄰里語言是最重要的因素。蒙古語文教育對蒙古語的保持和應用具有重要意義,但如果社會環境的漢化趨勢強勁,那么學校蒙古語文教育最終抵擋不住來自社會的壓力?;橐鲇^和語言觀演變的基礎是社會實踐。家庭中有異族通婚或異族通婚史,家庭成員在社會中多用漢語,一般會贊同或包容異族通婚、轉用漢語。各種語言模式的家庭,不論有沒有實踐基礎,都表示贊同使用雙語,因為它是異族通婚家庭各方都能夠接受的言語表達策略。

第九章為“總結與理論探索”。個案研究總結可以概括為:

(一)統一國家的建立和社會職業角色是氏族整合為部落的重要因素。

(二)民族接觸的程度取決于民族之間的接觸方式、地理位置和移民模式。

(三)土地所有權隨民族間及民族內部階級關系的變化而變化,命系黃土者才真正守護那份土地。

(四)人名、地名的漢化受語言演變和語言轉用規律支配。

(五)語言使用模式類型及語言轉換階段及速度。

喀喇沁地區蒙古族語言使用模式分保持型、轉用型、雙語型三類。雙語型進一步分為蒙古語瀕危型、蒙古語衰弱型和蒙古語下滑型。

從喀喇沁建旗到21世紀30年代,一共不到400年,前300年,蒙漢語經過長時間的接觸,蒙古語漸漸喪失優勢地位,后100年,蒙古語經過蒙古語單語、蒙漢雙語,迅速過渡到漢語單語。在整個喀喇沁地區,由于蒙古語的社會使用出現斷代,蒙古語的瀕危趨勢已形成。

(六)影響語言轉換速度的諸因素。

影響語言轉換速度的關鍵因素是民族接觸模式,尤其是居住模式。雜居程度深,兼用、轉用彼此的語言是自然選擇,隨著漢族人口占優勢,漢語替代蒙古語的趨勢開始形成。居住模式是分離式的,雜居程度較低,蒙古族聚居村落較好地保存了蒙古語;喀喇沁地區蒙漢語言接觸實踐證明,影響并決定語言使用模式轉換的關鍵因素首先不是使用者絕對人口的多寡,也不是使用者在總人口中所占的比例,而是居民社會中不同民族的居住模式和雜居、交往程度。一定人口規模的自然村是語言社會得以形成和保存的最基本的社會形態。

語言使用場域是影響語言使用模式轉換的重要因素。在喀喇沁地區蒙漢雜居社區,家庭是母語激勵源,社會是漢語激勵源,社區人員的實際語言能力,在一般情況下,接近兩種語言使用率的折中值。

地域社會經濟文化發展程度影響語用模式的轉換。從語言模式轉換的速度看,城鎮快于鄉村,子女快于父母,干部快于農民和學生。

職業對語言使用模式變化有一定影響。在喀喇沁地區蒙古族現時語言中,漢語使用程度最高的是干部,其次是家長,教師最低。

家庭語言中的年齡、等級和性別約束隨場景發生變化。事實證明,現時語言使用模式形成的決定性因素是社會語言環境,家庭語言隨社會語言環境而發生變化。社會語言環境的影響首先體現在父親和晚輩語言應用模式上,然后波及祖父母和母親,逐步向家庭語言滲透。

(七)語言轉換和文化遷移不等步,語言選擇和語言情感評價不一致。

(八)語言教育與語言轉換。

語言文字教育與國家的教育制度和政策運行機制有密切關系。語言文字的使用深受國家制度的約束。語言教育同人口比例、分布及其變動,同居民對語言教育的經濟支撐能力,以及受教育者對社會發展的期望值等,都有不可分割的密切聯系。本次研究發現,蒙古語文教育對蒙古語的保持和應用具有重要意義,但如果社會環境的漢化趨勢強勁,那么學校蒙古語文教育最終將抵擋不住來自社會的壓力。

(九)異族通婚與語言轉換。

異族通婚對語言模式的演變有重要影響,但不是決定的因素。這一章還討論了有關語言接觸現象的幾個基本理論問題。

The book is divided into nine chapters. The first chapter, "Introduction", includes the purpose of the research project, the current status and significance of the research, the design ideas and research content of the project, the research methods, and the main ideas and innovations. The second chapter, "The Origin and Clan Composition of the Karaqin Mongols", argues from different angles that the word "Karaqin" derives from the professional name of the court guard "Xiao Razhen" in the Northern Wei Dynasty; "Karaqin" as a tribal and professional name, mainly from the Kipchak Army and Harachi in the Yuan Dynasty; As an independent and unified tribe, the "Karaqin" was formed in the Ming Dynasty; In the Qing Dynasty, "Karaqin" was the name of a Mongolian tribe and administrative region. The third chapter is "The Use of Mongolian Spoken and Written Languages in the Karaqin Banner of Chifeng City". Social survey and questionnaire survey data show that less than 0.6% of the Mongolian population in Karaqin Banner use Mongolian language. People born in the age group of 70-85 born from 1921 to 1936 belong to the era of transition from Mongolian to Mongolian and Chinese, which is the Republican period; People born in the age group of 55-68 born in 1938-1950 belong to the era of bilingualism, which includes the War of Resistance Against Japan, the War of Liberation and the founding of New China; People born between the ages of 17 and 55 born in 1951-1990 belong to the era of switching to Chinese. It is estimated that in another generation, that is, about 30 years, there will be no people in the Karaqin banner who use the Mongolian language in essence. The fourth chapter is "Use of Karaqin Mongolian Languages in Ningcheng County, Chifeng City". Social survey and questionnaire survey data show that the Mongolian language in Ningcheng County has entered the endangered stage. In endangered language (dialect) areas, where the family is the source of motivating the mother tongue and the society is the motivator of the Chinese language, the actual language ability of community members is, in general, close to the compromise of the probability of using the two languages. The general process of language mode conversion is, first, the development of bilingualism, the suppression of the use of pure Mongolian, and the gradual expansion of the use of Chinese; Secondly, Mongolian has withdrawn from the field of social communication, the use of bilingual language has declined, and the use of Chinese has steadily increased; Finally, there was a complete switch to Chinese. The speed of language mode conversion is faster in towns than in villages, children faster than parents, and cadres faster than farmers and students. In endangered language (dialect) areas, schools are an important position for the protection of mother tongue and mother culture, and when merging schools, they should be treated separately and handled with caution. Chapter 5 is entitled "Use of Mongolian Languages in Karaqin Left Mongolian Autonomous County, Liaoning Province". Social survey and questionnaire survey data show that Mongolian speakers account for 15.9% of the total Mongolian population in Karaqin Left Mongolian Autonomous County, and less than 10% of the actual users are real. The Mongolian language usage model in Karaqin Left Mongolian Autonomous County transitioned from Mongolian monolingualism to Mongolian-Chinese bilingual mode before the founding of New China, and from the beginning of the founding of New China to 1979, and then from Mongolian-Chinese bilingual to Chinese monolingual. The Mongolian language in the Karaqin Left Mongolian Autonomous County has been interrupted in use and has become an endangered indigenous language. Chapter 6 is entitled "The Influence of Geographical Distribution and Population Movement of the Karaqin Region on Ethnic and Linguistic Contacts". Data from the Natural Village Gazetteer Database show that migration has a significant impact on the formation of ethnic contacts and ethnic composition patterns in the Karaqin region, and ethnic contacts and ethnic composition patterns are the most important social factors affecting language contact and language transfer process and progress. Pingquan County began to settle early and on a large scale, and Mongolian villages became a few isolated islands, and in the marginal islands, the Mongolian language was preserved and passed on to varying degrees based on natural villages inhabited by Mongolians. Karaqin Banner migration began early, but due to the restriction of land ownership, the formation of a Mongolian-Han mixed living model, the degree gradually deepened, the use of both languages became a natural selection, the Han population gradually dominated, and the trend of Chinese replacing Mongolian began to form. The migration of Ningcheng County began early, thanks to the support of the Qing court and special development agencies, the immigrants could build villages on a large scale and independently and develop and use the local land and mountains, the living mode was separate, the Mongol and Han ethnic groups kept one side, the degree of mixed living was low, and the Mongolian villages inhabited better preserved the Mongolian language. The migration and living patterns of the Karaqin Left-wing Mongol Autonomous County were deeply affected by the current situation, with the Mongols and Han naturally mixed before the Kangxi Dynasty, and the Han immigrants predominantly after the Qianlong Dynasty, and there was an adjustment process after the founding of the Republic of China and New China, and the degree of mixed living deepened, but not as good as the Karaqin Banner. In the natural villages inhabited by Mongolians, the Mongolian language is better preserved than the Karaqin Banner, but not as good as in Ningcheng County. The data of the "Natural Village Geographical Names Database" also shows that the Mongolian natural village geographical names in the Karaqin area are classified according to their meanings, including four types: physical geography, clan names, occupational division of labor, and settlement households. The natural geographical village name shows that the Karaqin people are mainly mountain settlements; Clan names show that the Karaqin tribe was formed by the fusion of many clans; The name of the village with occupational division of labor shows that the Kalaqin region once had developed animal husbandry, hunting, mountain and forest management traditions, and agriculture and other occupations were gradually developed; The name of the settlement household type shows that the Mongolian villages in the early days of the Karaqin region were mainly 3, 5, 7 and 8 households, and the scale was very small. The name of the natural village of the same name is preceded by a specific qualifier, which is a horizontal expansion form of the natural village, and naming the administrative unit of the natural village at the level above the resident core village is the vertical expansion form of the rural management network. The sinicization of Mongolian place names in the Karaqin region has different processes such as transliteration, transliteration and transliteration, paraphrasing plus transliteration, paraphrasing, two parallelism, and name change. The evolution of geographical names is a type of linguistic evolution. Chapter 7, "Research on Mongolian Bilingual Education in the Karaqin Region," argues that the use of spoken and written languages is deeply constrained by the state system. The combination of the universal function of a particular language and the political power of the state to produce linguistic authority is reflected in the choice of school language and its arrangement order, and the state's regulation of spoken and written language. Language and writing education is closely related to the country's education system and policy operation mechanism. In addition, language education is inextricably and closely related to the proportion, distribution and changes of the population, with the economic support capacity of the population for language education, and with the expectations of the educated for social development. Chapter 8 is entitled "The Impact of Interracial Marriage on the Evolution of Language Use Patterns in the Karaqin Region." Intermarriage has an important influence on the evolution of language patterns, but it is not a determining factor. The influence of interracial marriage is mainly manifested in the fact that Han mothers bring Chinese into the family and affect the family language patterns of their children. The determinant of the evolution of language patterns in intermarried families is the socio-linguistic environment, of which working language and neighborhood language are the most important factors. Mongolian language education is of great significance to the maintenance and application of Mongolian language, but if the trend of sinicization in the social environment is strong, then Mongolian language education in schools will eventually not be able to resist the pressure from society. The basis for the evolution of the view of marriage and language is social practice. There is a history of interracial marriage or interracial marriage in the family, and family members who use Chinese more in society will generally approve or tolerate interracial marriage and switch to Chinese. Families of all language patterns, with or without a basis in practice, endorse bilingualism as a verbal strategy acceptable to all parties in intermarried families. Chapter 9 is "Summary and Theoretical Exploration". The case study can be summarized as follows: (i) The establishment of a unified state and socio-professional roles are important factors in the integration of clans into tribes. (ii) The degree of ethnic contact depends on the mode of contact between ethnic groups, geographical location and migration patterns. (3) Land ownership changes with changes in class relations between and within ethnic groups, and it is the person who lives on the loess who truly protects that land. (4) The sinicization of personal and geographical names is governed by the law of language evolution and language transfer. (5) Language usage patterns, types, and language conversion stages and speeds. The use mode of Mongolian languages in the Karaqin region is divided into three categories: retention, transfer and bilingualism. Bilingual forms are further divided into Mongolian endangered type, Mongolian weak type, and Mongolian decline type. From the establishment of the Karaqin banner to the 30s of the 21st century, a total of less than 400 years, the first 300 years, Mongolian Chinese after a long period of contact, Mongolian gradually lost its dominant position, the next 100 years, Mongolian through Mongolian monolingual, Mongolian and Chinese bilingual, quickly transitioned to Chinese monolingual. Throughout the Karaqin region, the Mongolian language has become endangered due to the interruption of the social use of the Mongolian language. (6) Factors affecting the speed of language conversion. The key factor influencing the speed of language conversion is the pattern of ethnic contact, especially the pattern of residence. With the predominance of the Han population, the trend of replacing Mongolian with Chinese began to take shape. The living mode is separate, the degree of intermingling is low, and the Mongolian language is better preserved in Mongolian villages; The practice of Mongolian and Chinese language contact in the Karaqin region proves that the key factor affecting and determining the transformation of language use mode is not the absolute number of users, nor the proportion of users in the total population, but the living patterns and the degree of intermingling and interaction of different ethnic groups in the resident society. A natural village of a certain population size is the most basic social form in which a linguistic society can be formed and preserved. The language usage field is an important factor affecting the transformation of language usage patterns. In the mixed community of Menghan and Han in the Karaqin region, the family is the source of motivating the mother tongue, the society is the source of Chinese motivation, and the actual language ability of the community personnel is, in general, close to the compromise of the utilization rate of the two languages. The degree of regional, socio-economic and cultural development affects the transformation of pragmatic patterns. In terms of the speed of language mode conversion, towns are faster than villages, children are faster than parents, and cadres are faster than farmers and students. Occupation has an impact on changes in language usage patterns. Among the current Mongolian languages in the Karaqin region, the highest degree of Chinese use is made by cadres, followed by parents and teachers the lowest. Age, rank, and gender constraints in family language change from scene to scene. It turns out that the decisive factor in the formation of current language use patterns is the socio-linguistic environment, and the family language changes with the socio-linguistic environment. The influence of socio-linguistic environment is first reflected in the language application patterns of fathers and juniors, and then affects grandparents and mothers, gradually penetrating into family language. (7) Language conversion and cultural transfer are not equal, and language selection and language sentiment evaluation are inconsistent. (8) Language education and language conversion. Language and writing education is closely related to the country's education system and policy operation mechanism. The use of spoken and written languages is heavily constrained by the national system. Language education is inextricably and closely related to the proportion, distribution and changes of the population, with the economic support capacity of residents for language education, and with the expectations of educated people for social development. This study finds that Mongolian language education is of great significance to the maintenance and application of Mongolian language, but if the trend of sinicization in the social environment is strong, then Mongolian language education in schools will eventually be unable to resist the pressure from society. (9) Interracial marriage and language conversion. Intermarriage has an important influence on the evolution of language patterns, but it is not a determining factor. The chapter also discusses several basic theoretical issues related to the phenomenon of language contact.(AI翻譯)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
寶玉柱.蒙古語喀喇沁土語社會語言學研究[M].北京:中國社會科學出版社,2015
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MLA 格式引文
寶玉柱.蒙古語喀喇沁土語社會語言學研究.北京,中國社會科學出版社:2015E-book.
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APA 格式引文
寶玉柱(2015).蒙古語喀喇沁土語社會語言學研究.北京:中國社會科學出版社
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