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內蒙古區域游牧文化的變遷

第七屆高等學??茖W研究優秀成果獎著作獎二等獎

ISBN:978-7-5161-2157-3

出版日期:2013-04

頁數:741

字數:734.0千字

點擊量:5523次

引用量:3次

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基金信息: 國家哲學社會科學成果文庫 展開
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我在中央民族大學從事民俗學的教學和科研工作30多年,邢旗在內蒙古從事草原方面的科技工作也30多年,我們合作的專著是我們學業和踐行的結果。在我們深入草原,矚目草原的工作期間,得到很多人的鼓勵、支持和幫助,感念之情溢于言表……我們是在北京長大和讀書的蒙古族,原籍是內蒙古赤峰喀喇沁旗人。祖先的蒙古姓氏為希里德特,是原察哈爾移民的后代??叩貐^逐漸演變為農區,是蒙漢文化交流較早的區域之一,父親邢復禮先生(蒙古名字錫里居泰)年幼時期除了學習蒙文之外,還學習《四書》、《五經》等漢文典籍。曾與內蒙古大學清格爾泰、陳乃雄等教授一起攻研契丹文字,并且取得了突破性的成果。祖父邢致祥亦是蒙漢兼通,著有蒙文《蒙古帝國史》、《蒙古元朝史》、《熱河省蒙古喀喇沁右旗札薩克親王貢桑諾爾布之略史》、《喀喇沁志略》等。前兩本著作存于內蒙古大學圖書館特藏部。從曾祖父一代已經使用漢姓。母親李松筠先生為漢族。在我們家鄉,蒙古族文化和漢族文化在清代就已經互相交融,漢蒙通婚的現象也常出現。我們是在北京讀書長大的,與漢族同學無甚差異。但是有兩件事至今記憶很深。一是在20世紀50年代我上小學的時候,十世班禪大師來到雍和宮接見眾多的蒙民和藏民。父親回來把一條紅絲繩拴在我的脖子上,說這樣可以不生病。二是在北京實驗中學讀高中的時候,父親令我閱讀家存的《蒙古秘史》等蒙古族的史著。我模糊地意識到,我是蒙古族,蒙古族有與漢族不同的歷史,那是怎樣的一部歷史呢?“文革”中斷了邢旗的學業,邢旗去內蒙古莫力達瓦旗插隊五年,這五年給了她了解草原的機會,并且成為她的終生財富。爾后她主動放棄了進入北京讀大學的機會,就讀于內蒙古農牧學院草業學專業。從這時起,邢旗這個文學底子很好的才女開始與草原結緣。我在北京首都師范大學中文系畢業后在部隊勞動鍛煉。1978年由喀喇沁鄉親白蔭泰教授推薦在中央民族大學任教。其間我聆聽了當代元史專家賈敬顏先生的《元史大綱》,多次得到元史專家翁獨健先生、女真文字專家和滿族文化專家金啟綜先生的點撥。我學習了宋蜀華和林耀華兩位先生的《民族學通論》,并且有幸聆聽了費孝通先生的人類學講座,不斷地學習更新了我的知識結構,啟迪了我對人類學、民族學、民俗學的興趣。人類學、民俗學的魅力吸引著我,草原母親的召喚使得我們不斷地回歸草原。在此我首先感謝中央民族大學的人文環境,特別是人類學、民族學、社會學學院的人文環境,他們舉辦的高質量、高品位的多次講座使我重整知識結構,這些講座滿足了我求知求真的渴望。從事民俗學和民間文學教學30年有余,20年前我出版了《游牧文化》《草原文化》,后來又出版了《游牧中國》。當時我多次來到了內蒙古草原,那已經是發生了很大變化的草原,而不是想象中的草原了。這激起了我描述內蒙古草原變化的愿望。感謝國家社會科學規劃辦給予立項的支持,也特別感謝內蒙古大學齊木德·道爾吉教授兼副校長給予這本書的鼓勵和關注。這本著作的重要合作者之一應該還有中央民族大學蒙古語言文學系的叁布拉副教授,但是課題剛剛批準之時,他積勞成疾,英年早逝,這成為我們最大的遺憾。沒有他的參與,加大了這本書的難度和寫作時間的拖延。在這本書的寫作期間邢旗承擔了“草原監測3S技術應用研究”、“內蒙古退化、沙化草地植被快速恢復及綜合改良”等重要研究課題,承擔了全區草原遙感調查任務,與他人合作編著了《內蒙古草業可持續發展戰略》、《內蒙古草原常見植物》等書,此期間作為內蒙古草原學會副理事長,她于2008年協助中國草學會在呼和浩特市成功舉辦了世界草地與草原大會。而我除了從事日常的教學工作外,主持完成了中央民族大學985的重大課題《中國少數民族重大節日的調查與研究》一書的出版,并負責拍攝了五部少數民族節日的民俗影視片。在這本書的撰寫期間,我們經歷了人生的甜酸苦辣。邢旗在草原現場工作時經歷了車禍,腰部受傷住院治療;我們96歲高齡的慈母屢次住院最后辭世;我們的孫輩一個個出生……這本書的背后,是我們各自家庭的生活,但是斷而又續,續而又斷的調查和撰寫是我們生活的重要組成部分,也是我們的精神需求,因為我們的眼前閃爍的是父親的草原和母親的河……感謝內蒙古草原勘察規劃院的同仁們,他們對草原的勘測、評估和有效的治理為我們提供了科學的論據,這些數據是他們敬業的汗水的結晶;感謝我們所引用的豐富材料的各位作者(在本書的前言中提到的不少文章和專著),他們的前行開啟了我們的心智,鼓勵我們奮然前行;感謝內蒙古文化廳安泳锝副廳長、赤峰老家的霍天祥、秦義、秦俊、張志勇、特古斯、烏云達來等多位同志,感謝海拉爾鄂溫克自治旗的孟麗、希德夫等陪同我們調查;感謝中央民族大學的研究生張曙光、王志清、秦博、王玉光、桂麗等和我一起做的田野考察,還有白麗麗、娜敏、薩日娜、包海青、宋小非等獨自的田野考察;感謝王志清、張曙光、周加、姜迎春、靳一萌等提供的照片(還有些照片是作者的多年積累,可能出處不甚準確,也特別表示感謝),感謝接待我們考察的很多牧民及干部,在此我們不可能一一敘說你們的名字,但是我們的腦海里刻印下了永久的記憶,你們的一碗碗奶茶溫暖我們到永久。在此還特別感謝塞音、敖其、朋·烏恩、寶力格、孟慧英等教授的支持和關心。著作的定稿是2010年邢莉在美國印安娜大學做訪問學者時完成的,其間得到圖書館劉文玲女士的幫助,得以閱覽珍貴的文獻資料,也一并在此感謝。最后我們以崇高的敬禮仰視內蒙古草原,內蒙古草原源源不斷地輸送給我們前行的動力,她使我們對人生多一份熱情,人性多一份信心。當“成果”公之于世之際,我們首先把她獻給父親的草原、母親的河,獻給在內蒙古草原世代生存的牧人們;此書還獻給已經辭世的師長和友人。他們的厚愛和教誨,我們以這本書報答萬一。我們把此書獻給草業研究專家、生態學者和民俗學者以及一切關注草原發展的不同學科的學者們、同仁們。我們還要把此書獻給學識淵博的父親和善良的茹苦含辛的母親及不斷以深情期許我們的家人。我們把這本書贈給我所有的研究生,在新時代下對知識的渴求激勵我不斷前行,我銘記與你們相處的歲月。這本書贈給中央民族大學85級文學班的全體畢業生。在校期間,我們心心相印,20多年后我們是朋友,友情綿長。這本書也同時贈給在國外的子孫,這里有我們的心血的灌注和追求,也有我們對國家的責任和對他們的期望——留給他們的一份精神遺產?!秲让晒艆^域游牧文化的變遷》是一個龐大的課題,在撰寫過程中,我們逐漸知道了其不可而黽勉為之,逐漸認識到其意義,敝帚自珍,我們認為辛勞的付出不無價值。但是這樣龐大的課題是我們已有的各方面的條件難以為之的,況且由于本身學術水平的限制,會存在一些缺憾,在此我們誠懇地期待學術界的指正,同時也希望有更優秀的著作問世。最后我們向中國社會科學出版社的黃燕生編審和姜阿平編輯致以崇高的敬意,感謝她們在排版付梓的過程中付出的辛勤?;仨b望,啊,父親的草原,母親的河…… 邢莉邢旗 2012.8

I have been engaged in folklore teaching and scientific research at Minzu University of China for more than 30 years, and Xing Qi has been engaged in grassland science and technology in Inner Mongolia for more than 30 years. During our work of going deep into the grassland and paying attention to the grassland, we received encouragement, support and help from many people, and my feelings were overflowing... We are Mongolians who grew up and studied in Beijing, and we are originally from the Karaqin Banner of Chifeng, Inner Mongolia. The ancestral Mongolian surname is Hiriddt, a descendant of the original Chahar immigrants. The Karaqin region gradually evolved into an agricultural area, one of the earliest areas of Mongolian-Chinese cultural exchange, and his father, Mr. Xing Fuli (Mongolian name Siri Jutai), studied Chinese classics such as the Four Books and the Five Classics in addition to Mongolian when he was young. He has studied Khitan script with professors Qinggeltai and Chen Naixiong of Inner Mongolia University, and has achieved breakthrough results. His grandfather Xing Zhixiang was also a Mongolian and Han scholar, and he wrote the Mongolian "History of the Mongol Empire", "History of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty", "A Brief History of the Prince of Gongsang Norbu of the Right Banner of the Mongolian Karaqin Right Banner in Rehe Province", "Karaqin Zhiluo" and so on. The first two works are preserved in the Special Collections Department of the Library of Inner Mongolia University. From the generation of great-grandfathers already used Han surnames. His mother, Mr. Li Songjun, is of Han ethnicity. In our hometown, Mongolian culture and Han culture have been blending with each other since the Qing Dynasty, and the phenomenon of Han-Mongolian marriage often appears. We grew up studying in Beijing, not much different from our Han classmates. But two things are still well remembered. First, when I was in elementary school in the 50s of the 20th century, the 10th Panchen Master came to the Lama Temple to meet many Mongolians and Tibetans. My father came back and tied a red silk rope around my neck, saying that I would not get sick. Second, when I was in high school at Beijing Experimental Middle School, my father asked me to read Mongolian historical works such as the "Secret History of Mongolia" that I had preserved. I vaguely realized that I am Mongolian, and Mongolian has a different history from the Han, what kind of history is that? The Cultural Revolution interrupted Xing Qi's studies, and Xing Qi went to Inner Mongolia to join the Molidawa Banner for five years, which gave her the opportunity to learn about the grassland and became her lifelong treasure. Later, she voluntarily gave up the opportunity to enter Beijing University and studied grassland science at Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry College. From this time on, Xing Qi, a talented woman with a good literary background, began to bond with the grassland. After graduating from the Chinese Department of Capital Normal University in Beijing, I worked in the army. In 1978, he was recommended by Professor Bai Yintai of Karaqin to teach at the Central University for Nationalities. During this period, I listened to the "Outline of Yuan History" by Mr. Jia Jingyan, an expert in contemporary Yuan history, and received many requests from Mr. Weng Dujian, an expert in Yuan history, Mr. Jin Qijian, an expert in Jurchen characters and an expert on Manchu culture. I studied the "General Theory of Ethnology" by Mr. Song Shuhua and Lin Yaohua, and had the privilege of listening to Mr. Fei Xiaotong's anthropology lectures, which constantly updated my knowledge structure and inspired my interest in anthropology, ethnology, and folklore. The charm of anthropology and folklore attracts me, and the call of Mother Prairie keeps us returning to the prairie. First of all, I would like to thank the humanistic environment of Minzu University of China, especially the humanistic environment of the School of Anthropology, Ethnology and Sociology, and the high-quality and high-grade lectures they have held have enabled me to reorganize my knowledge structure, and these lectures have satisfied my desire for knowledge and truth. I have been teaching folklore and folklore for more than 30 years, and 20 years ago I published "Nomadic Culture", "Grassland Culture", and later "Nomadic China". At that time, I came to the grassland of Inner Mongolia many times, and it was already a grassland that had changed a lot, not the grassland I imagined. This inspired my desire to describe the changes in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia. I would like to thank the National Social Science Planning Office for its support for the establishment of the project, and especially to Professor Qimud Dorji and Vice President of Inner Mongolia University for his encouragement and attention to this book. One of the important collaborators of this book should be Associate Professor Sambra of the Department of Mongolian Language and Literature of the Minzu University of China, but when the project was first approved, he died young, which became our greatest regret. Without his participation, the difficulty of the book and the delay in writing the time were increased. During the writing of this book, Xing Qi undertook important research topics such as "Application Research of 3S Technology for Grassland Monitoring", "Rapid Restoration and Comprehensive Improvement of Vegetation of Degraded and Desertified Grassland in Inner Mongolia", undertook the task of remote sensing survey of grassland in the whole region, co-edited books such as "Sustainable Development Strategy of Inner Mongolia Grassland", "Common Plants of Inner Mongolia Grassland" and other books, during this period, as the vice president of the Inner Mongolia Grassland Society, she assisted the Chinese Grassland Society to successfully hold the World Grassland and Grassland Conference in Hohhot City in 2008. In addition to my daily teaching work, I presided over the publication of the book "Investigation and Research on Major Ethnic Minority Festivals in China" on the major project of 985 of the Central University for Nationalities, and was responsible for shooting five folk film and television films on ethnic minority festivals. During the writing of this book, we experienced the bitterness of life. Xing Qi experienced a car accident while working at the grassland site and was hospitalized for a back injury; Our 96-year-old loving mother was repeatedly hospitalized and died; One by one, our grandchildren were born... Behind this book is the life of our respective families, but the intermittent investigation and writing is an important part of our lives and our spiritual needs, because what flashes before our eyes is the father's steppe and the mother's river... Thanks to the colleagues of the Inner Mongolia Grassland Survey and Planning Institute, they have provided us with scientific arguments for the survey, evaluation and effective governance of the grassland, and these data are the crystallization of their dedicated sweat; Thanks to the authors of the wealth of material we have cited (many of the articles and monographs mentioned in the preface to this book), their journey has opened our minds and encouraged us to move forward; We would like to thank An Yongxiang, deputy director of the Inner Mongolia Department of Culture, Huo Tianxiang, Qin Yi, Qin Jun, Zhang Zhiyong, Tegus, Wuyundalai and many other comrades from Chifeng's hometown, and Meng Li and Xidev of the Hailar Evenk Autonomous Banner for accompanying us in the investigation; I would like to thank Zhang Shuguang, Wang Zhiqing, Qin Bo, Wang Yuguang, Gui Li, etc., graduate students of Minzu University of China, for doing fieldwork with me, as well as Bai Lili, Namin, Sarina, Bao Haiqing, Song Xiaofei and others for their independent fieldwork; Thanks to Wang Zhiqing, Zhang Shuguang, Zhou Jia, Jiang Yingchun, Jin Yimeng, etc. for the photos provided (some photos are accumulated by the author for many years, the source may not be accurate, and special thanks), thank you for receiving many herdsmen and cadres for our inspection, here we cannot say your names one by one, but our minds are engraved with permanent memories, and your bowls of milk tea warm us to eternity. Special thanks to professors such as Sai Yin, Ao Qi, Peng Wuen, Baolige, Meng Huiying and other professors for their support and concern. The final draft of the book was completed in 2010 when Xing Li was a visiting scholar at Innova University in the United States, during which she was able to read the precious literature with the help of Ms. Liu Wenling of the library. Finally, we look up to the Inner Mongolia grassland with high respect, and the Inner Mongolia grassland continuously sends us the motivation to move forward, which makes us more enthusiastic about life and more confident in human nature. When the "fruit" is made public, we first dedicate her to her father's grassland, mother's river, and to the herders who have survived in the grassland of Inner Mongolia for generations; The book is also dedicated to the deceased teachers and friends. Their love and teachings, we repay with this book. We dedicate this book to Pratacultural experts, ecologists and folklorists, as well as scholars and colleagues from different disciplines who are concerned with the development of grasslands. We also dedicate this book to our learned father and the kind and bitter mother and to our family who constantly look forward to our affection. We gave this book to all my graduate students, and my thirst for knowledge in the new era inspired me to keep going, and I remember the years I spent with you. This book was donated to all graduates of the 85-level literature class of Minzu University of China. During our time at school, we were close to each other, and after more than 20 years, we are friends and friendships are long-lasting. This book is also given to our children and grandchildren abroad, where our painstaking efforts and pursuits, as well as our responsibility to the country and our expectations for them - a spiritual legacy left to them. "The Changes of Nomadic Culture in the Inner Mongolia Region" is a huge topic, and in the process of writing, we gradually learned that it is impossible to do, gradually realized its significance, and cherished ourselves, and we believe that hard work is not without value. However, such a huge subject is difficult to achieve in all aspects of our existing conditions, and due to the limitations of our own academic level, there will be some shortcomings, and we sincerely look forward to the correction of the academic community, and at the same time hope that more excellent works will come out. Finally, we would like to pay high tribute to Huang Yansheng and Jiang Aping, editors of China Social Sciences Press, and thank them for their hard work in the process of typesetting and payment. Looking back, ah, father's steppe, mother's river... Xing Li Xing Qi 2012.8(AI翻譯)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
邢莉,邢旗.內蒙古區域游牧文化的變遷[M].北京:中國社會科學出版社,2013
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MLA 格式引文
邢莉,邢旗.內蒙古區域游牧文化的變遷.北京,中國社會科學出版社:2013E-book.
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APA 格式引文
邢莉和邢旗(2013).內蒙古區域游牧文化的變遷.北京:中國社會科學出版社
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