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民國時期西北少數民族社會變遷及其問題研究

甘肅省第十三次哲學社會科學優秀成果一等獎;第七屆高等學??茖W研究優秀成果獎著作獎三等獎

ISBN:978-7-5161-0549-8

出版日期:2012-03

頁數:501

字數:511.0千字

點擊量:4810次

引用量:4次

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基金信息: 國家哲學社會科學成果文庫 展開
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圖書簡介

本書所指的西北,僅限于民國時期的甘肅、寧夏(包括阿拉善和額濟納兩旗,今屬內蒙古)、青海、新疆四省區,研究對象包括主要聚居在甘寧青地區的回、東鄉、撒拉、保安、藏、土、蒙古等民族和主要聚居在新疆地區的維吾爾、哈薩克、柯爾克孜、塔吉克、烏孜別克、塔塔爾、俄羅斯、錫伯等民族。由于該地區是著名的西北高原,它實際上由蒙新高原大部、青藏高原和黃土高原的一部分組成。按照自然生態環境和民族分布的特點,西北地區又可劃分為甘寧青地區和新疆地區兩大部分,因此在本書研究中,常常從甘寧青地區和新疆地區兩個部分來展開論述。甘寧青新地區自古就是一個多民族聚居的地區,也是多元文化交匯之地。民國時期,這一多民族社會經歷了重要的發展階段,發揮了重要的歷史作用,在東部和中部漢族地區現代化潮流的推動下,開始了從傳統社會向現代社會的轉型。關于民國時期西北少數民族的研究,學術界有一定的積累。早在民國年間,中國學術界就開展了西北回、藏、蒙古、維吾爾等民族歷史文化的學術研究。當時大量的考察報告、游記、行記、筆記、文集以及民國檔案等,均不同程度地記載或反映著那個時代西北少數民族的社會狀況,這為我們系統研究民國時期西北少數民族提供了基本資料。20世紀50年代,國家組織眾多學者進行了規??涨暗纳贁得褡迳鐣v史調查,隨后出版了“五種叢書”,其中有關西北各少數民族的簡史簡志、社會歷史調查叢書,收集了西北各民族近現代社會歷史的大量資料,對進一步推進高質量的西北少數民族研究打下了基礎。改革開放以來,中國民族史學發展迅速,取得了豐碩的研究成果。甘寧青新四省區組織出版了一批文史資料,匯集了當事人的回憶材料,補充和延伸了以往的史料記載。近年來隨著西部大開發的展開,民國時期西北邊疆和民族的研究越來越引起學界的關注,一些歷史學、民族學、宗教學、文化人類學的學者開始積極涉足對民國時期西北少數民族的研究之中,研究成果也不斷涌現,這些研究成果為我們進一步的研究提供了很好的參考和借鑒。然而,由于種種原因,民國史的研究起步較晚,民國時期西北少數民族史的研究至今仍是一個比較薄弱的環節,已有研究成果具有較大局限性。主要表現在:一是在研究范式上。重視政治、革命斗爭歷史,忽略各民族社會結構、經濟和文化的變遷,許多社會領域和社會問題都不能被其所包含,不能從總體上展示民國時期西北少數民族社會變遷及其內在規律,也有礙于民族史學的發展和繁榮。二是在研究的層面上。由于民國時期西北少數民族資料相對缺乏,并且分布零散,造成以往學術界的研究,多為零散微觀的研究,要么是對個別民族的研究,要么是對個別問題的研究,缺乏宏觀上的整體把握。因此,選擇民國時期的西北少數民族社會變遷進行系統研究,具有學術和實踐兩個方面意義。從學術上講,首先,本書以翔實的史料為基礎,對民國時期西北少數民族社會顯著變動的方面及其主要問題進行了較為細致的研究,豐富了西北少數民族史研究的內容,在一定程度上拓展了中國民族史研究的領域。其次,以社會變遷為切入點,對民國時期西北少數民族社會開始從傳統向現代轉型的基本歷史進程進行了較為細致的描述與分析,拓展了民族史、民國史研究的視野。第三,對民國時期西北少數民族社會變遷特點及其規律進行了比較深入的探討,為當代中國西北少數民族研究提供了有益的參考和借鑒。從實踐的角度來看,現實問題的研究只有放到歷史之中,才能看清其來龍去脈。民國時期是西北少數民族歷史演進中的重要時期,許多今天存在的民族問題,與各民族的歷史發展有著直接的密切關系,亟待大力加強研究。因此,對民國時期西北少數民族社會變遷進行總體性探討與分析,又是具有重大社會實踐意義的課題。它不僅使人們能更全面地了解民國時期西北少數民族社會的歷史原貌,了解西北各族民眾開發西北邊疆、反對外國侵略、維護祖國統一的歷史貢獻,認識和總結民國時期開發西北地區的歷史經驗和教訓,豐富人們對該時期西北少數民族社會的整體認識,而且通過這一研究,對西北少數民族及民族地區發展過程的不平衡性、復雜性、滯后性等進行比較系統的總結,對促進和制約其社會發展的諸因素進行比較系統的分析,以發現其獨特規律,為當代中國西北少數民族問題研究提供了有益的參考和借鑒,為今天西北少數民族的現代化和西部大開發提供多方面的歷史借鑒與一定的理論支持,對正確執行黨的民族政策和宗教政策,加強民族團結,維護西北民族社會穩定等方面,都是十分有益的。由于民國時期西北各民族人口、經濟、社會等研究資料匱乏、零散,統計數據來源復雜,有些是實際的普查數或登記數,有些則完全是估計數,對于各民族人口也并未作單獨統計,這給我們的研究帶來了諸多困難。我們搜集整理了大量的有關民國時期西北少數民族人口、經濟、社會等方面的統計資料和文獻資料,并從相關問題與相關學科的角度給出了解釋和說明,對其中的一些數據進行了重新統計和分析,糾正了一些因時代局限而產生的不足和謬誤。本書充分吸收了學術界的研究成果,以社會變遷為切入點,對民國時期西北少數民族社會開始從傳統向現代轉型的基本歷史進程進行了較為系統的探討與分析。社會變遷是社會結構和社會行為突發的、急劇的、演進的或緩慢的變化,是社會的動態表現的一面。民國時期,中國社會由于民族矛盾和階級矛盾空前尖銳,面對西方先進文明的強大壓力和中國社會對現代化的內在要求,其變遷十分劇烈。在東部和中部漢族地區現代化潮流的推動下,西北民族地區開始了從傳統社會向現代社會的轉型。因此,本書選取了人口變遷、傳統社會中的現代性因素、綠洲農業變遷、教育變遷、社會分層與流動、災荒與社會問題、西北軍閥與西北民族社會等專題進行論述,總體上都突出了社會顯著變動的方面及其主要問題。另外,本書采用新的視角,對民國時期西北地區錯綜復雜的各類人物的敘述和分析比較深入,實事求是,持論恰當,走出了民國人物研究的既有思維定式。本書的研究從不同側面再現了民國時期西北少數民族在各種時代力量的左右下,在傳統與現代、新與舊因素的交互作用中曲折發展的復雜過程。通過研究,我們對該時期西北民族社會有了較為深入的認識。第一,民國時期的西北民族社會有兩個明顯特征。其一,西北少數民族在民國時期經歷了重要的發展過程,發揮了重要的歷史作用,在東部和中部漢族地區現代化潮流的推動下,開始了從傳統社會向現代社會的轉型,但與內地相比,其轉化的速度比較緩慢。西北早期現代化屬于“晚發外生型現代化”。與中國主流社會的“晚發外生型現代化”所不同的是,中國主流社會現代化的“晚發”是相對于當時全球范圍內的現代化發生時間,而西北現代化的“晚發”則是相對于中國較發達地區而言的;中國主流社會現代化的“外源”是指西方資本主義世界,而西北現代化的“外源”是指中國內部現代化的早發地區。中國主流社會現代化是1840年開始啟動的,而西北地區是在受到國家政體的變革后和東部漢族地區現代化潮流的影響下,社會才開始發生變革的;現代生產力要素和現代化的文化要素都是從外部移植或引進的。因此,現代社會因素同同期內地漢族地區相比發育的并不充分,傳統社會因素廣泛存在,這使西北民族社會的整體運行并不和諧,社會發展滯后,社會各方面問題比內地更復雜。這種差異就決定了西北地區早期現代化的起點低、起步晚、時限短,西北民族社會從傳統向現代社會的轉型更艱難和緩慢。其二,民國時期西北民族社會呈現出多元化的特點(包括宏觀上的多元化和微觀上的多元化),但各民族社會從傳統社會向現代社會過渡過程中,存在著極大的不平衡。不僅是不同民族有極大的差異性,同一民族也因種種原因而出現社會變革程度的不一致。由于各民族所處生態環境的不同、歷史文化的獨特性,社會構成的多元化,社會意識也存在較大差異,這些因素影響其對現代社會因素的接受、消化吸收和理解?,F代社會積極進步的社會因素并不是每一個民族都自覺接受的,故各民族社會從傳統向現代過渡時,其社會整體變革并不一致。第二,民國時期西北民族地區出現的現代性因素還很微弱,可以說傳統的西北民族社會才逐步邁進了近代文明的門檻,但它畢竟是新的進步的標志,為這塊古老而沉寂的地區迎來了現代文明的曙光,加快了西北少數民族社會轉型的進程,為20世紀中期以后西北少數民族地區的發展與騰飛作了歷史的準備。第三,民國時期的西北少數民族社會在當局的治理下,雖開始向現代社會邁進,但由于地處偏遠、交通落后、自然環境脆弱、傳統遺風濃厚、民族關系復雜,宗教信仰各異、戰亂頻仍、災荒和疾病多發、軍閥統治專橫、民族主義和地方主義盛行,其發展仍極為緩慢,有時甚至出現倒退。因此只有在中華人民共和國成立后,在中國共產黨的領導下,實行了正確的民族政策,西北少數民族社會才邁上健康快速發展的軌道。

The northwest referred to in this book is limited to the four provinces and regions of Gansu, Ningxia (including the Alxa and Ejina Banners, now part of Inner Mongolia), Qinghai and Xinjiang during the Republican period, and the research objects include the Hui, Dongxiang, Sala, Baoan, Tibetan, Turkish, Mongolian and other ethnic groups mainly living in the Ganningqing region, and the Uygur, Kazakh, Kirgiz, Tajik, Uzbek, Tatar, Russian, Xibe and other ethnic groups mainly living in the Xinjiang region. Since the area is known as the Northwest Plateau, it actually consists of most of the Mengxin Plateau, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and part of the Loess Plateau. According to the characteristics of natural ecological environment and ethnic distribution, the northwest region can be divided into two parts: Ganningqing region and Xinjiang region, so in the study of this book, it is often discussed from the two parts of Ganningqing region and Xinjiang region. Since ancient times, the Ganning Qingxin area has been a multi-ethnic area and a place where diverse cultures meet. During the Republican period, this multi-ethnic society experienced an important stage of development, played an important historical role, and began the transformation from a traditional society to a modern society under the impetus of the modernization trend in the eastern and central Han areas. Regarding the research on ethnic minorities in the northwest during the Republican period, the academic community has a certain accumulation. As early as the Republic of China, Chinese academic circles carried out academic research on the history and culture of Northwest Hui, Tibetan, Mongolian, Uygur and other ethnic groups. At that time, a large number of investigation reports, travelogues, travel notes, notes, anthologies and archives of the Republic of China all recorded or reflected the social conditions of the ethnic minorities in the northwest of the country to varying degrees, which provided basic information for us to systematically study the ethnic minorities in the northwest during the Republican period. In the 50s of the 20th century, the state organized many scholars to conduct an unprecedented social history survey of ethnic minorities, and then published the "Five Kinds of Books", including a brief history of ethnic minorities in Northwest China and a series of social history surveys, which collected a large amount of data on the modern and modern social history of ethnic minorities in Northwest China, laying a foundation for further promoting high-quality research on ethnic minorities in Northwest China. Since the reform and opening up, Chinese ethnohistoriography has developed rapidly and achieved fruitful research results. The four provinces and regions of Ganning, Qingxin organized and published a batch of literary and historical materials, which collected the memories of the parties concerned and supplemented and extended the previous historical records. In recent years, with the development of the western region, the study of the northwest frontier and nationalities in the Republic of China period has attracted more and more attention from the academic circles, and some scholars of history, ethnology, religious studies, and cultural anthropology have begun to actively participate in the study of ethnic minorities in the northwest during the Republican period, and research results have also emerged, which provide a good reference and reference for our further research. However, due to various reasons, the research on the history of the Republic of China started late, and the research on the history of ethnic minorities in northwest China during the Republican period is still a relatively weak link, and the existing research results have great limitations. The main manifestations are: First, in the research paradigm. Attaching importance to the history of political and revolutionary struggles and ignoring the changes in the social structure, economy and culture of various ethnic groups, many social fields and social problems cannot be contained by them, cannot generally show the social changes and internal laws of ethnic minorities in the northwest during the Republic of China, and also hinder the development and prosperity of ethnohistoriography. The second is at the level of research. Due to the relative lack of data on ethnic minorities in the northwest during the Republican period, and the scattered distribution, the previous academic research was mostly scattered and microscopic research, either the study of individual ethnic groups or the study of individual issues, lacking the overall grasp of macroscopic. Therefore, the selection of social changes in the northwest ethnic minorities during the Republic of China period for systematic research has both academic and practical significance. Academically speaking, first of all, based on detailed historical materials, this book conducts a more detailed study of the aspects of the significant changes in the society of ethnic minorities in Northwest China and their main problems during the Republican period, enriches the content of the research on the history of ethnic minorities in Northwest China, and expands the field of Chinese ethnic history research to a certain extent. Secondly, taking social change as the starting point, the basic historical process of the transformation of ethnic minority society in northwest China from tradition to modernity is described and analyzed in detail, which expands the horizon of ethnic history and Republic of China history research. Third, the characteristics and laws of social changes of ethnic minorities in northwest China during the Republic of China period are discussed in depth, which provides useful reference and reference for the study of ethnic minorities in northwest China in contemporary China. From a practical point of view, the study of practical problems can only be clearly seen in history. The Republican period was an important period in the historical evolution of ethnic minorities in Northwest China, and many ethnic issues existing today are directly and closely related to the historical development of various ethnic groups, and urgently need to be vigorously strengthened and studied. Therefore, the overall discussion and analysis of the social changes of ethnic minorities in northwest China during the Republic of China period is a topic of great social practical significance. It not only enables people to have a more comprehensive understanding of the historical original appearance of ethnic minority society in the northwest during the Republican period, understand the historical contributions of the people of all ethnic groups in the northwest to developing the northwest frontier, opposing foreign aggression and safeguarding the unity of the motherland, understand and sum up the historical experience and lessons of developing the northwest region during the Republican period, and enrich people's overall understanding of the minority society in the northwest during this period, but also through this research, a comparative and systematic summary of the imbalance, complexity and lag in the development process of ethnic minorities and ethnic minority areas in the northwest. A relatively systematic analysis of the factors that promote and restrict their social development in order to discover their unique laws provides a useful reference and reference for the study of minority issues in northwest China in contemporary times, provides multifaceted historical reference and certain theoretical support for the modernization of ethnic minorities in northwest China and the large-scale development of the western region, and is very beneficial to the correct implementation of the party's ethnic and religious policies, strengthening ethnic unity, and maintaining social stability of ethnic minorities in northwest China. Due to the lack and scattered research data on the population, economy and society of various ethnic groups in the northwest during the Republic of China, and the sources of statistical data are complex, some are actual census numbers or registered numbers, while others are completely estimates, and no separate statistics are made for the population of various ethnic groups, which has brought many difficulties to our research. We have collected and sorted out a large number of statistical data and literature on the population, economy and society of ethnic minorities in Northwest China during the Republic of China, and explained and explained them from the perspective of relevant issues and related disciplines, re-counted and analyzed some of the data, and corrected some deficiencies and errors caused by the limitations of the times. This book fully absorbs the research results of the academic community, takes social change as the starting point, and systematically discusses and analyzes the basic historical process of the transformation of ethnic minority society in northwest China from tradition to modernity during the Republican period. Social change is a sudden, sharp, evolutionary or slow change in social structure and social behavior, which is a dynamic manifestation of society. During the Republican period, due to unprecedentedly sharp ethnic and class contradictions, Chinese society underwent drastic changes in the face of the strong pressure of advanced Western civilization and the inherent requirements of Chinese society for modernization. Driven by the modernization trend in the eastern and central Han ethnic regions, the northwest ethnic regions began to transform from traditional society to modern society. Therefore, this book selects topics such as demographic change, modernity factors in traditional society, oasis agricultural change, educational change, social stratification and mobility, famine and social problems, Northwest warlords and Northwest ethnic society, etc., and generally highlights the aspects of significant social changes and their main problems. In addition, this book adopts a new perspective, and the narration and analysis of the intricate various characters in the northwest region during the Republican period are more in-depth, seeking truth from facts, holding appropriate arguments, and stepping out of the existing mind-set of the study of Republican characters. The research of this book reproduces from different aspects the complex process of tortuous development of ethnic minorities in northwest China under the influence of various epochal forces, in the interaction between tradition and modernity, new and old factors. Through research, we have a deeper understanding of the ethnic society in Northwest China during this period. First, the northwestern ethnic society during the Republican period had two distinct characteristics. First, the ethnic minorities in the northwest experienced an important development process during the Republican period, played an important historical role, and began the transformation from traditional society to modern society under the impetus of the modernization trend in the eastern and central Han areas, but the speed of transformation was relatively slow compared with the hinterland. The early modernization of the northwest belongs to the "late-onset exogenous modernization". Different from the "late-onset exogenous modernization" of China's mainstream society, the "late onset" of China's mainstream social modernization is relative to the time of modernization on a global scale at that time, while the "late onset" of modernization in Northwest China is relative to the more developed areas of China. The "exogenous" of China's mainstream social modernization refers to the Western capitalist world, while the "exogenous" of northwestern modernization refers to the early onset of China's internal modernization. The modernization of mainstream Chinese society began in 1840, while the northwest region began to change society after the reform of the state political system and the modernization trend of the Han region in the east. Both the elements of modern productivity and the elements of modern culture were transplanted or imported from outside. Therefore, compared with the Han areas in the hinterland during the same period, modern social factors are not fully developed, and traditional social factors are extensive, which makes the overall operation of ethnic society in the northwest not harmonious, social development lags behind, and all aspects of society are more complicated than in the hinterland. This difference determines that the early modernization in the northwest region has a low starting point, a late start, and a short time limit, and the transformation of the northwest ethnic society from traditional to modern society is more difficult and slow. Second, the ethnic society in the northwest during the Republican period showed diversified characteristics (including macro pluralism and micro pluralism), but there was a great imbalance in the transition of various ethnic societies from traditional society to modern society. Not only are there great differences between different ethnic groups, but the degree of social change is also inconsistent within the same ethnic group for various reasons. Due to the different ecological environments of various ethnic groups, the uniqueness of history and culture, the diversity of social composition, and the great differences in social consciousness, these factors affect their acceptance, digestion and understanding of modern social factors. The positive and progressive social factors of modern society are not consciously accepted by every nation, so when the transition of various ethnic societies from tradition to modernity, their overall social changes are not consistent. Second, the modernity factors that appeared in the northwest ethnic areas during the Republican period were still very weak, and it can be said that the traditional northwest ethnic society has gradually entered the threshold of modern civilization, but it is after all a sign of new progress, ushering in the dawn of modern civilization for this ancient and silent area, accelerating the process of social transformation of ethnic minorities in northwest China, and making historical preparations for the development and take-off of ethnic minority areas in northwest China after the mid-20th century. Third, although the minority society in the northwest during the Republican period began to move towards a modern society under the governance of the authorities, its development was still extremely slow and sometimes even retrogressive due to its remote location, backward transportation, fragile natural environment, strong traditional heritage, complex ethnic relations, different religious beliefs, frequent wars, frequent disasters and diseases, arbitrary rule by warlords, and the prevalence of nationalism and localism. Therefore, only after the founding of the People's Republic of China and under the leadership of the Communist Party of China and the implementation of the correct ethnic policy did the minority society in the northwest embark on the track of healthy and rapid development.(AI翻譯)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
閆麗娟.民國時期西北少數民族社會變遷及其問題研究[M].北京:中國社會科學出版社,2012
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MLA 格式引文
閆麗娟.民國時期西北少數民族社會變遷及其問題研究.北京,中國社會科學出版社:2012E-book.
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APA 格式引文
閆麗娟(2012).民國時期西北少數民族社會變遷及其問題研究.北京:中國社會科學出版社
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